Last week the number of participants registered with the US healthcare website were released and the results were unimpressive. This could be for many reasons, although personally, I have not enrolled simply because the website, like all technologies, is an iterative process. Whenever a new operating system rolls out for my laptop or ipad, I'm always excited, but I'm never an immediate adopter. I typically wait until an update is launched, which is typically about 2 weeks later. I'm rather excited by the healthcare initiative, but it would be foolish to rush into enrollment. The website, like all technologies is a work in progress.
Within Smart Cities, Townsend begins with a historical overview of urban technology development and describes the evolution of major corporations presently working with these issues such as Siemens, Cisco, and IBM. He identifies established and emerging systems to contend with urban planning issues of climate change, traffic, and economic growth. But Townsend isn't advocating for these mega-companies to dominate data-driven urban development. Rather, he advocates for a more widely distributed net of stakeholders, consisting of empowered everyday citizens who use technology to interface with their governments and businesses to create a bottom-up model of a well designed urban landscape.
I've met Anthony a couple times and have followed his work for many years. Last June I sat in the audience at Poptech The City Resilient
and listened to his talk on designing a wireless network in New Jersey that will continue to function under threat of natural disaster. His faith in smart systems is optimistic, yet carefully hesitant, and I believe his argument for the creation of smart cities to be a more democratic process to be on target.
Yet my own concern about smart cities is less about the actors involved in the creation of the technology and the control of the data, but is more interested in the actual "recipes" used to streamline the city. When I lived in Cincinnati, I recall it had demographic and economic qualities nearly identical to the city of St. Louis. Consequently, it was common for these two city governments to simply share or sell each other studies on their own cities (such as research on industrial clusters) rather than conduct the work internally. If somethings works in St. Louis, then it should work in Cincinnati! On a different scale, I've also sat in several meetings with members of the United Nations advocating a similar boiler-plate approach to urban development - even if the project failed in the first instance, it would be replicated and applied to the second.
Consequently I believe that an extensive level of qualitative research must be done before any quantitive system can be constructed and applied to a given city. Of course this is expensive and methodical mess, so probably not in the interest of companies like IBM. This is where Anthony and I overlap. If the work is done by the local communities, then the outputs will likely best conform to the local demands.
Anthony advocates and hopes for the widespread participation of urban citizens in the creation of smarter cities. He does well to identify many small organizations working to teach programming and give momentum to local-scale smart city development. But here we differ again... my outlook is gloomier.
For much of internet history, we have mostly lived under the 90-9-1 rule
- wherein 1% of internet users create content, 9% curate, and 90% consume. In the 20 years we have had the internet, this has improved as online content creation has risen with the advent of social media. In 2004, The Pew Research center found that 44% of internet users
had actually created content on the internet. Now, Pew has found that number has drifted upward to 54%
in 2013. I should add that the Pew Research Center released another study identifying that 15% of Americans are not even online
. I realize this is a a very small snapshot, but does this rate imply that it will take 99 years for 100% of internet users to also become content creators? But what is a more reasonable number? 50 years? 20?
If 20 years of global internet access has resulted in only 50% of all internet users to become content creators, how will this translate to more technical processes such as coding? Yes - there are many high quality online tools today for people to learn computer programming skills for free. I am personally a frequent user of such tools. But this stuff is not easy, requires discipline, and is not a skill set available in a readily consumable manner. More importantly - there is an issue of incentive.
Participation in any enterprise requires an incentive, but the situation darkens when the enterprise has a steep learning curve. Apparently health care and national security are not a sufficient incentive for most Americans to use a website or forsake personal data. But in contrast, millions of Facebook users supply very personal details of their lives to the Facebook company for the satisfaction of gossip, shared photos, and adorable cat videos. What incentives exist for a democratized process of urban systems design?
This is where I feel Schüll's research on human addiction to casino machine gambling might provide light. Casino machines are highly refined to maximize the amount of time an individual spends on the machine. Casinos also employ various design techniques to drive customers toward machines and increase time of play. But many casino's now feature data driven analytics to refine the experience further, to create new machines, and to ultimately derive far higher profits. An excellent example is the use of rewards cards.
Subscribed loyalty rewards programs encourage repeat visits but they also give customers a reason to share data. By providing customers with free rooms, meals and tickets to special events - or even paid weekend resort getaways for high rollers - casinos provide a series of convenience and in exchange, capitalize on the windfall of collected data. Many casinos maintain 90 different demographic categories on each customer, can predict future calendars and budgets, and generate behavior reports to assemble the best package of rewards to offer each individual. If a customer strays from pattern... for example, a habitual gambler stops making visits, that person will be emailed, snail mailed, and telephone called with enticing offers to return.
This creepy surveillant system has been of great value to the casino industry. It works. But it also appears to be popular with patrons. According to Schüll, in Las Vegas casinos, "70% of gamblers use loyalty club cards" and the number continues to rise. Apparently the provision of personal information to a corporation is okay in exchange for a hotel room and a prime-rib dinner. But website enrollment for affordable healthcare? Snooze.
A distinct difference between the task/reward systems of the casinos and the healthcare enterprise is that in the healthcare website, an individual must still express a level of work and payment in exchange for the reward. Whereas in the casino system, it appears to consist entirely of rewards for the user. The array of losses are behind the scenes.
So returning to the issue of "who" leads the charge in the creation of smart cities, I honestly don't see a great degree of grass-roots design unless the amount of effort is reduced and a direct system of ongoing incentives is increased. The success
of the Citi Bike
initiative in New York City is a good example. Users enjoy the convenience of an affordable system, brought about through public-private partnership, and the primary sponsor CitiBank maintains a constant influx on user data with which to capitalize. Perhaps in the end the only real winner will be the bank, but right now it appears as a worthwhile exchange for over 100,000 enrolled bike users.
Perhaps this rewards model can be applied somewhere as we continue down the road of data driven city optimization. Maybe a clear system of direct incentives can be provided in exchange for citizens to contribute to the creation of better neighborhoods and the sharing of personal data. Maybe one day, however, the simple rewards of a safer, cleaner neighborhood will be enough?